Business Studies
December 23, 2017
Black Lives Matter
December 23, 2017



Read text book Chapter 4 “Port Operations” and submit their assessment briefly…..write about this topic of not less than 200 words

Book:: Port Management & Operations, by Maria Burns. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group 2015

Port & Terminal Management-Week 5


Terminal management operates on the following principles:
1. Personnel must be protected from injury while in the terminal area. Stated another way, safety is paramount. In fact, many marine terminals often proudly display on billboards at the front entrance the number of “accident-free” days or reductions in Lost Time Incident, in an effort to emphasize the importance of worker safety.
2. The ship must be unloaded, reloaded, and made ready for sea in the least possible time.
3. Cargo must be handled efficiently and economically between the ship and a variety of inland transportation modes using standard procedures.
Intolerable are cargo handling practices that result in damage or loss of customers’ goods.
Technology, specifically Terminal Operating Systems (TOS), is important tool used to help meet these objectives. This powerful software marries powerful analytics and real-time monitoring via Internet-enabled sensors to ultimately offer better control of freight.
TOS software links vessel stowage and yard management applications with customers’ supply chain software to ideally facilitate a seamless handoff of cargo. It often relies on cargo monitoring/tracking data to optimize cargo placement and cueing. The software’s planning/scheduling engine minimizes delays.
However, a TOS is expensive. The license fee per-location is about $8 million to $12 million, with annual vendor support and upgrades costing $1.2 million to $1.5 million. Total cost of ownership, including personnel costs over the system’s six-to eight-year life, is five to eight times the original licensing fee. Hardware costs are modest.

4. Cargo must be protected from loss or damage while in the terminal.
5. Paperwork necessary for the movement of cargo must be completed quickly and done accurately.
6. Terminals are not long-term storage areas. Every effort should be made to move cargo as rapidly as possible because the facilities ideally are efficient flow-through operations. Achieving throughput objectives is a daily concern of terminal management.
It’s important to note here that container terminals work shipside operations around the clock (24×7), but have limited hours for container drop and pick-up by drayage drivers. (Those hours generally are 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. with an hour for lunch, Monday to Friday.) Hours are sometimes extended, to include a half day on Saturday, during the peak shipping season.
Delays often manifest at the entrance to terminals, where drayage drivers (usually independent contractors) line up before the gates to the terminal storage yard open to ensure prompt acceptance or delivery of boxes.
Though terminal management differs somewhat by facility, the goal is the same: meet operating objectives.
In charge of the whole operation is the terminal manager, who is responsible for coordinating and controlling the facility’s daily activities.
The terminal manager’s principal assistants are the chief receiving clerk, who supervises all routines relating to cargo brought to the terminal to be loaded on board outbound vessels; chief delivery clerk, who performs the same duties for cargo from inbound vessels being turned over to consignees; security chief, who is responsible for the physical safety of the facility and its contents; timekeeper, who keeps detailed records of the employment of every hourly laborer hired, and stevedore or vessel superintendent, who directs vessel loading and unloading operations.
Sometimes the superintendent is employed by the stevedore contractor rather than the terminal, but serves as a member of the terminal manager’s staff and advises on all matters connected with the labor force and actual handling of cargo.
The security chief is responsible to the terminal manager for the physical safety and security of the terminal and its contents. Guards are directed by the chief of security. They have a number of important duties: to control access to the terminal area, patrol throughout the terminal during periodic rounds but at irregularly scheduled intervals, prevent theft and detect fire or other problems


Students are required read text book Chapter 4 “Port Operations” and submit their assessment briefly for week 5.





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